Background: The third-generation EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor osimertinib has been approved in many countries to treat advanced NSCLC in patients with the EGFR T790M mutation. As the development of acquired resistance is inevitable, it is urgent that the mechanisms of such resistance be clarified. Methods: DNA samples from a cohort of 340 patients with lung adenocarcinoma who were taking osimertinib were subjected to next-generation sequencing and screened in terms of the frequencies of the L792H and G796R mutations. Ba/F3 cells stably expressing the EGFR L858R/T790M mutations (in cis) with either the L792H or G796R mutation were created to investigate the impact of the two novel mutations on EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors and other potential drug combinations in vitro. Structural analyses were performed by using Schrödinger/Maestro software (version 11.1.012, Schrödinger LLC, Cambridge, MA). Results: L792H and G796R were detected in 1.76% (six of 340) and 0.56% (two of 340) patients with lung adenocarcinoma treated with osimertinib, respectively. The introduction of L792H or G796R mutations against an L858R/T790M background caused dramatic reductions in osimertinib sensitivity. Structural modeling showed that mutations in cis with T790M either forced the ligand (osimertinib) to rotate out (breaking the binding) or pulled the hinge loop (breaking the hinge). Various other drug combinations. including cetuximab with EAI045, failed to inhibit either cis mutant effectively. Conclusions: The EGFR L858R/T790M/L792H and L858R/T790M/G796R mutations conferred resistance to osimertinib both in vitro and in silico. For patients in whom the two resistance mutations occur at low frequency, more precise treatment strategies and additional combinational approaches are required.
- Acquired drug-resistance
- EGFR TKIs
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine