Ejaculatory disorders in men with spinal cord injury

Mikkel Fode, Sheila Krogh-Jespersen, Nancy L. Brackett, Dana A. Ohl, Charles M. Lynne, Jens Sønksen*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Spinal cord injury (SCI) most often affects younger men, rendering them unable to ejaculate and therefore incapable of fathering children without medical assistance. Furthermore, most men with SCI have low sperm motility and low sperm viability, probably due to alterations in the seminal plasma and the immune system following the injury. The first choice to induce ejaculation in men with SCI is penile vibratory stimulation (PVS). When this is not successful, the second choice is electroejaculation (EEJ), which is almost always successful. Only if both of these procedures fail should surgical sperm retrieval be considered. In many cases, ejaculation via PVS can be carried out by the patient and his partner at home, followed by home insemination if circumstances and sperm quality are adequate. Other reproductive options include intrauterine insemination (IUI), in vitro fertilisation (IVF) and intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), depending on the motile sperm count of the patient. Numerous studies have revealed a lack of differences in parenting styles and outcomes in children of individuals with and without SCI.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)49-55
Number of pages7
JournalEuropean Urological Review
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 1 2011


  • Assisted reproductive techniques
  • Ejaculation
  • Electroejaculation
  • Infertility
  • Intravaginal insemination
  • Parenting
  • Penile vibratory stimulation
  • Retrograde ejaculation
  • Semen quality
  • Spinal cord injury
  • Surgical sperm retrieval

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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