Electrical properties of Nb-, Ga-, and Y-substituted nanocrystalline anatase TiO 2 prepared by hydrothermal synthesis

E. Mitchell Hopper*, Frédéric Sauvage, Aravind Kumar Chandiran, Michael Grätzel, Kenneth R. Poeppelmeier, Thomas O. Mason

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


Nanocrystalline anatase titanium dioxide powders were produced by a hydrothermal synthesis route in pure form and substituted with trivalent Ga 3+ and Y 3+ or pentavalent Nb 5+ with the intention of creating acceptor or donor states, respectively. The electrical conductivity of each powder was measured using the powder-solution-composite (PSC) method. The conductivity increased with the addition of Nb 5+ from 3 × 10 -3 S/cm to 10 × 10 -3 S/cm in as-prepared powders, and from 0.3 × 10 -3 S/cm to 0.9 × 10 -3 S/cm in heat-treated powders (520°C, 1 h). In contrast, substitution with Ga 3+ and Y 3+ had no measureable effect on the material's conductivity. The lack of change with the addition of Ga 3+ and Y 3+, and relatively small increase upon Nb 5+ addition is attributed to ionic compensation owing to the highly oxidizing nature of hydrothermal synthesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3192-3196
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of the American Ceramic Society
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2012

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Ceramics and Composites
  • Materials Chemistry


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