Electrochromic materials using mechanically interlocked molecules

Taichi Ikeda*, James Fraser Stoddart

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

25 Scopus citations


Recent investigations on the design and synthesis of electrochromic materials based on switchable three-station [2]catenanes are summarized. The reasoning and preliminary experiments behind the design of electrochemically controllable red-green-blue (RGB), donor-acceptor [2]catenanes are presented. A basis for color generation is discussed in which the tetracationic cyclophane, cyclobis(paraquat-p-phenylene), serves as the π-electron deficient ring which circumrotates between three π-electron rich recognition sites within a macrocyclic polyether, generating the three different colors (RGB) based on the different charge transfer interactions between the tetracationic cyclophane and recognition sites based on 1,5-dioxynaphthalene (R), tetrathiafulvalene (G) and benzidine (B). Issues relating to the realization of an RGB [2]catenane are raised and discussed: they include (i) color tuning, (ii) thermodynamic considerations, (iii) electrochemistry on model compounds, (iv) molecular design, (v) the electrochemical behavior of three-station [2]catenanes and (vi) electrochromism in polymer gel matrices. Finally, the challenges that need to be met in the future if the ideal RGB catenane is to be prepared, are outlined.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number014104
JournalScience and Technology of Advanced Materials
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2008


  • Carge-transfer complex
  • Electrochromism
  • Electronic paper display
  • Interlocked molecules
  • [2]catenanes

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Materials Science(all)


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