Electronic health record-based patient identification and individualized mailed outreach for primary cardiovascular disease prevention: A cluster randomized trial

Stephen D. Persell*, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Elisha M. Friesema, Andrew J. Cooper, David W. Baker

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

27 Scopus citations

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Many individuals at higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) do not receive recommended treatments. Prior interventions using personalized risk information to promote prevention did not test clinic-wide effectiveness. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To perform a 9-month cluster-randomized trial, comparing a strategy of electronic health record-based identification of patients with increased CVD risk and individualized mailed outreach to usual care. PARTICIPANTS: Patients of participating physicians with a Framingham Risk Score of at least 5 %, low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level above guideline threshold for drug treatment, and not prescribed a lipid-lowering medication were included in the intention-to-treat analysis. INTERVENTION: Patients of physicians randomized to the intervention group were mailed individualized CVD risk messages that described benefits of using a statin (and controlling hypertension or quitting smoking when relevant). MAIN MEASURES: The primary outcome was occurrence of a LDL-cholesterol level, repeated in routine practice, that was at least 30 mg/dl lower than prior. A secondary outcome was lipid-lowering drug prescribing. Clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT01286311. KEY RESULTS: Fourteen physicians with 218 patients were randomized to intervention, and 15 physicians with 217 patients to control. The mean patient age was 60.7 years and 77% were male. There was no difference in the primary outcome (11.0 % vs. 11.1 %, OR 0.99, 95 % CI 0.56-1.74, P = 0.96), but intervention group patients were twice as likely to receive a prescription for lipid-lowering medication (11.9 %, vs. 6.0 %, OR 2.13, 95 % CI 1.05-4.32, p = 0.038). In post hoc analysis with extended follow-up to 18 months, the primary outcome occurred more often in the intervention group (22.5 % vs. 16.1 %, OR 1.59, 95 % CI 1.05-2.41, P = 0.029). CONCLUSIONS: In this effectiveness trial, individualized mailed CVD risk messages increased the frequency of new lipid-lowering drug prescriptions, but we observed no difference in proportions lowering LDL-cholesterol after 9 months. With longer follow-up, the intervention's effect on LDL-cholesterol levels was apparent.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)554-560
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of general internal medicine
Volume28
Issue number4
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 1 2013

Keywords

  • cardiovascular disease prevention
  • cholesterol
  • electronic health records
  • patient outreach
  • primary care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine

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