This review examined whether nonpharmacologic treatment was associated with reductions in all-cause mortality and heart failure (HF) hospitalizations and investigated the effects of face-to-face contact and longer treatment duration on these outcomes. MEDLINE and PsycINFO databases were searched through June 2006 and bibliographies of potential articles were hand-searched. Nonpharmacologic treatment was associated with significantly lower odds of HF hospitalizations (odds ratio [OR], 0.41; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.30-0.56) and death (OR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.56-0.85) compared with control treatment. Face-to-face contact was associated with significantly lower odds of HF hospitalization (OR, 0.42; 95% CI, 0.22-0.81; P<.05) and death (OR, 0.63; 95% CI, 0.44-0.91; P<.05) as compared with control treatment. Longer treatment duration (>or=12 months) was associated with a 65% reduction in the rate of HF hospitalizations and a 36% reduction in death rate. Nonpharmacologic treatment featuring face-to-face contact is particularly effective in reducing HF hospitalization and all-cause mortality rates.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Emergency Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine