Elevated levels of MIC-1/GDF15 in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients are associated with glioblastoma and worse outcome

Sophie Shnaper, Isabelle Desbaillets, David A. Brown, Anastasia Murat, Eugenia Migliavacca, Myriam Schluep, Sandrine Ostermann, Marie France Hamou, Roger Stupp, Samuel N. Breit, Nicolas De Tribolet, Monika E. Hegi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

75 Scopus citations


For patients with brain tumors identification of diagnostic and prognostic markers in easy accessible biological material, such as plasma or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), would greatly facilitate patient management. MIC-1/GDF15 (growth differentiation factor 15) is a secreted protein of the TGF-beta superfamily and emerged as a candidate marker exhibiting increasing mRNA expression during malignant progression of glioma. Determination of MIC-1/GDF15 protein levels by ELISA in the CSF of a cohort of 94 patients with intracranial tumors including gliomas, meningioma and metastasis revealed significantly increased concentrations in glioblastoma patients (median, 229 pg/ml) when compared with control cohort of patients treated for non-neoplastic diseases (median below limit of detection of 156 pg/ml, p < 0.0001, Mann-Whitney test). However, plasma MIC-1/GDF15 levels were not elevated in the matching plasma samples from these patients. Most interestingly, patients with glioblastoma and increased CSF MIC-1/GDF15 had a shorter survival (p = 0.007, log-rank test). In conclusion, MIC-1/GDF15 protein measured in the CSF may have diagnostic and prognostic value in patients with intracranial tumors.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2624-2630
Number of pages7
JournalInternational Journal of Cancer
Issue number11
StatePublished - Dec 1 2009


  • Cerebrospinal fluid
  • Glioblastoma
  • MIC-1/GDF15
  • Prognostic biomarker

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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