Elevation of activated neutrophils in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps

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25 Scopus citations


Background: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) with nasal polyps (CRSwNP) is well characterized by type 2 (T2) inflammation characterized by eosinophilia in Western countries. However, the presence and roles of neutrophils in T2 CRSwNP are poorly understood. Objective: We sought to clarify accumulation and inflammatory roles of neutrophils in CRSwNP in a Western population. Methods: Sinonasal tissues and nasal lavage fluids were obtained from control patients and patients with CRS, and neutrophil markers were determined by ELISA. The presence of neutrophils in tissue was determined by flow cytometry. The gene expression profiles in neutrophils were determined by RNA sequencing. Results: A neutrophil marker elastase was selectively elevated in nasal polyp (NP) tissue, whereas eosinophilic cationic protein (an eosinophil marker) was elevated in both uncinate and NP tissues of CRSwNP patients. Nasal lavage fluid myeloperoxidase (another neutrophil marker) was also significantly elevated in CRSwNP compared to control patients. Neutrophil markers were more greatly elevated in CRSwNP patients with recurrent disease. Flow cytometric analysis confirmed that neutrophil numbers were significantly elevated in NPs compared to control tissues. RNA sequencing analysis found that 344 genes were >3-fold and significantly elevated in NP neutrophils compared to peripheral blood neutrophils. Gene Ontology analysis suggested that the elevated genes in NP neutrophils were significantly associated with activation. Results suggest that neutrophils are accumulated in T2 NP tissues and that accumulated neutrophils are highly activated and contribute to inflammation in NPs. Conclusions: Neutrophils may play a heretofore unrecognized meaningful role in the pathogenesis of CRSwNP in Western countries and may be a potentially important therapeutic target in T2 CRSwNP.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1666-1674
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Issue number5
StatePublished - May 2022


  • Neutrophils
  • chronic rhinosinusitis
  • endotype
  • nasal polyps
  • type 2 inflammation

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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