Emergency department and urgent care for children excluded from child care

Andrew N. Hashikawa*, David C. Brousseau, Dianne C. Singer, Achamyeleh Gebremariam, Matthew M. Davis

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Children in child care are frequently unnecessarily excluded for illness. We investigated parental use of urgent medical evaluation for sick children unable to attend child care. METHODS: In May 2012, authors conducted a nationally representative survey of parents, who completed online questions regarding child illness causing absence from child care and their medical care-seeking behavior. Main outcome was parents' use of emergency department or urgent care (ED/UC). RESULTS: Overall survey participation rate was 62%. Of participating parent cohort with children 0 to 5 years old, 57% (n = 357) required child care, of which 84% (n = 303) required out-of-home child care. Over 88% of parents sought acute medical care for their sick children unable to attend child care. Approximately one-third of parents needed a doctor's note for employers and/or child care. Parents sought medical evaluation (>1 option possible) from primary care (81%), UC (26%), or ED (25%). ED/UC use was most common for rash (21%) and fever (15%). Logistic regression indicated ED/UC use was significantly higher among single/divorced parents (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.5-13.5); African American parents (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 1.2-14.6); parents needing a doctor's note (OR = 4.2; 95% CI: 1.5-11.7); and those with job concerns (OR = 3.4; 95% CI: 1.2-9.7). CONCLUSIONS: A substantial proportion of parents whose sick children cannot attend child care seek care in ED/UC. Training child care professionals regarding appropriate illness exclusions may decrease ED/UC visits by lowering child care exclusions.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)e120-e127
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2014


  • Child care
  • Emergency care
  • Illness
  • Parents
  • Policy
  • Survey
  • Urgent care

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


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