Emerging, noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis

Samir N. Patel, Venkataraman Rajaram, Sanjay Pandya, Benjamin M. Fiedler, Charlotte J. Bai, Rachel Neems, Matt Feinstein, Marshall Goldin, Steven B. Feinstein*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis allow the physician to identify subclinical disease before the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events, thereby limiting the need to perform invasive diagnostic procedures. Imaging modalities, such as carotid artery ultrasound, two-dimensional echocardiography, coronary artery calcium imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, ankle-brachial indices, brachial artery reactivity testing, and epicardial coronary flow reserve measurements, provide information that may improve the predictive value of a person's risk of developing clinically significant atherosclerotic disease. Newer imaging modalities have also emerged to bring insight into the pathophysiology and treatment of atherosclerosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)60-68
Number of pages9
JournalCurrent atherosclerosis reports
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2004

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Emerging, noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this