Noninvasive surrogate markers of atherosclerosis allow the physician to identify subclinical disease before the occurrence of adverse cardiovascular events, thereby limiting the need to perform invasive diagnostic procedures. Imaging modalities, such as carotid artery ultrasound, two-dimensional echocardiography, coronary artery calcium imaging, cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, ankle-brachial indices, brachial artery reactivity testing, and epicardial coronary flow reserve measurements, provide information that may improve the predictive value of a person's risk of developing clinically significant atherosclerotic disease. Newer imaging modalities have also emerged to bring insight into the pathophysiology and treatment of atherosclerosis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine