Emerging roles of heparanase in viral pathogenesis

Neel Thakkar, Tejabhiram Yadavalli, Dinesh Jaishankar, Deepak Shukla*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

39 Scopus citations

Abstract

Heparan sulfate (HS) is ubiquitously expressed on mammalian cells. It is a polysaccharide that binds growth factors, cytokines, and chemokines, and thereby controls several important physiological functions. Ironically, many human pathogens including viruses interact with it for adherence to host cells. HS functions can be regulated by selective modifications and/or selective cleavage of the sugar chains from the cell surface. In mammals, heparanase (HPSE) is the only known enzyme capable of regulating HS functions via a selective endoglycosidase activity that cleaves polymeric HS chains at internal sites. During homeostasis, HPSE expression and its endoglycosidase activity are tightly regulated; however, under stress conditions, including infection, its expression may be upregulated, which could contribute directly to the onset of several disease pathologies. Here we focus on viral infections exemplified by herpes simplex virus, dengue virus, human papillomavirus, respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus, hepatitis C virus, and porcine respiratory and reproductive syncytial virus to summarize recent advances in understanding the highly significant, but emerging roles, of the enzyme HPSE in viral infection, spread and pathogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalPathogens
Volume6
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 18 2017
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • Heparan sulfate
  • Heparanase
  • Herpes simplex virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases
  • General Immunology and Microbiology
  • Molecular Biology
  • Immunology and Allergy

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