John T. Cacioppo*, Wendi L. Gardner

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

838 Scopus citations


We review recent trends and methodological issues in assessing and testing theories of emotion, and we review evidence that form follows function in the affect system. Physical limitations constrain behavioral expressions and incline behavioral predispositions toward a bipolar organization, but these limiting conditions appear to lose their power at the level of underlying mechanisms, where a bivalent approach may provide a more comprehensive account of the affect system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)191-214
Number of pages24
JournalAnnual review of psychology
StatePublished - 1999


  • Affect
  • Cognitive appraisal
  • Evaluation
  • Negativity
  • Positivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychology(all)


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