Empowerment Through Difference: An Online Difference-Education Intervention Closes the Social Class Achievement Gap

Sarah S.M. Townsend*, Nicole M. Stephens, Stephanie Smallets, Mar Yam G. Hamedani

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations

Abstract

A growing body of work suggests that teaching college students a contextual understanding of difference—that students’ different experiences in college are the result of participating in different contexts before college—can improve the academic performance of first-generation students (i.e., students whose parents do not have 4-year college degrees). However, only one empirical study, using an in-person panel format, has demonstrated the benefits of this intervention approach. In the present research, we conduct two studies to test the effectiveness of a new difference-education intervention administered online to individual students. In both studies, first-year students read senior students’ and recent graduates’ stories about how they adjusted to college. In the difference-education condition, stories conveyed a contextual understanding of difference. We found that the online intervention effectively taught students a contextual understanding of difference and closed the social class achievement gap by increasing first-generation students’ psychological empowerment and, thereby, end-of-second-year grades.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1068-1083
Number of pages16
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Volume45
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

Keywords

  • academic achievement
  • difference-education
  • intervention
  • social class

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology

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