The upper esophageal sphincter functions to facilitate antegrade transit during deglutition and restrict retrograde flow of refluxed material from the esophagus. Neuropathic, myopathic, and inflammatory conditions can result in upper esophageal sphincter dysfunction and lead to detrimental consequences of dysphagia and aspiration. Proper evaluation of oropharyngeal swallowing is critical to diagnosing upper esophageal sphincter pathology. The aim of this review is to describe the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the upper esophageal sphincter.
- Oropharyngeal dysphagia
- Upper esophageal sphincter
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging