Endothelial cells promote human immunodeficiency virus replication in nondividing memory T cells via Nef-, Vpr-, and T-cell receptor-dependent activation of NFAT

Jaehyuk Choi, Jason Walker, Kristina Talbert-Slagle, Paulette Wright, Jordan S. Pober, Louis Alexander*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

19 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Human endothelial cells (ECs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication within CD4+ memory T cells by 50,000-fold in a Nef-dependent manner. Here, we report that EC-mediated HIV type 1 replication is also dependent on an intact vpr gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite a requirement for engaging major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and costimulators, EC-stimulated virus-producing cells (p24 high T cells) do not proliferate, nor are they arrested in the cell cycle. Rather, they are minimally activated, sometimes expressing CD69 but not CD25, HLA-DR, VLA-1, or effector cytokines. Blocking antibodies to interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-7, or tumor necrosis factor do not inhibit viral replication. Cyclosporine effectively inhibits viral replication, as does disruption of the NFAT binding site in the viral long terminal repeat. Furthermore, in the presence of ECs, suboptimal T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with phytohemagglutinin L supports efficient viral replication, and suboptimal stimulation with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 leads to viral replication selectively in the TCR-stimulated, Vβ2-expressing T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that ECs provide signals that promote Nef- and Vpr-dependent HIV replication in memory T cells that have been minimally activated through their TCRs. Our studies suggest a mechanism for HIV replication in vivo within the reservoir of circulating memory CD4+ T cells that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and further suggest that maintenance of immunological memory by MHC class II-expressing ECs via TCR signaling may contribute to HIV rebound following cessation of antiretroviral therapy.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)11194-11204
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of virology
Volume79
Issue number17
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2005

Fingerprint

Human immunodeficiency virus
Virus Replication
virus replication
T-Cell Antigen Receptor
endothelial cells
Endothelial Cells
T-lymphocytes
HIV
T-Lymphocytes
receptors
Major Histocompatibility Complex
Integrin alpha1beta1
major histocompatibility complex
Immunologic Memory
vpr Genes
Interleukin-7
Blocking Antibodies
Terminal Repeat Sequences
Phytohemagglutinins
HLA-DR Antigens

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Microbiology
  • Immunology
  • Insect Science
  • Virology

Cite this

Choi, Jaehyuk ; Walker, Jason ; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina ; Wright, Paulette ; Pober, Jordan S. ; Alexander, Louis. / Endothelial cells promote human immunodeficiency virus replication in nondividing memory T cells via Nef-, Vpr-, and T-cell receptor-dependent activation of NFAT. In: Journal of virology. 2005 ; Vol. 79, No. 17. pp. 11194-11204.
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abstract = "Human endothelial cells (ECs) enhance human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication within CD4+ memory T cells by 50,000-fold in a Nef-dependent manner. Here, we report that EC-mediated HIV type 1 replication is also dependent on an intact vpr gene. Moreover, we demonstrate that despite a requirement for engaging major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules and costimulators, EC-stimulated virus-producing cells (p24 high T cells) do not proliferate, nor are they arrested in the cell cycle. Rather, they are minimally activated, sometimes expressing CD69 but not CD25, HLA-DR, VLA-1, or effector cytokines. Blocking antibodies to interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-6, IL-7, or tumor necrosis factor do not inhibit viral replication. Cyclosporine effectively inhibits viral replication, as does disruption of the NFAT binding site in the viral long terminal repeat. Furthermore, in the presence of ECs, suboptimal T-cell receptor (TCR) stimulation with phytohemagglutinin L supports efficient viral replication, and suboptimal stimulation with toxic shock syndrome toxin 1 leads to viral replication selectively in the TCR-stimulated, Vβ2-expressing T cells. Collectively, these data indicate that ECs provide signals that promote Nef- and Vpr-dependent HIV replication in memory T cells that have been minimally activated through their TCRs. Our studies suggest a mechanism for HIV replication in vivo within the reservoir of circulating memory CD4+ T cells that persist despite antiretroviral therapy and further suggest that maintenance of immunological memory by MHC class II-expressing ECs via TCR signaling may contribute to HIV rebound following cessation of antiretroviral therapy.",
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Endothelial cells promote human immunodeficiency virus replication in nondividing memory T cells via Nef-, Vpr-, and T-cell receptor-dependent activation of NFAT. / Choi, Jaehyuk; Walker, Jason; Talbert-Slagle, Kristina; Wright, Paulette; Pober, Jordan S.; Alexander, Louis.

In: Journal of virology, Vol. 79, No. 17, 01.09.2005, p. 11194-11204.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

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AU - Alexander, Louis

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