Endovascular Treatment of Carotid Cavernous Fistulas

Joseph J. Gemmete*, Sameer A. Ansari, Dheeraj Gandhi

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

33 Scopus citations


Carotid cavernous fistulas (CCFs) are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. CCFs are broadly classified as either direct or indirect. Surgical treatment of CCFs is technically difficult and is associated with significant morbidity. Endovascular techniques from either an arterial or a venous approach have become the mainstay of treatment given the recent advances in endovascular technology. This article provides an overview of various endovascular approaches available for the treatment of CCFs.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)241-255
Number of pages15
JournalNeuroimaging Clinics of North America
Issue number2
StatePublished - May 1 2009


  • Carotid cavernous fistula
  • Classification
  • Clinical presentation
  • Endovascular treatment
  • Etiology and pathology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Clinical Neurology

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