Clinical investigators have asserted patients should be active participants in the therapy process in stroke rehabilitation. While robotics introduces new tools for measurement and treatment of motor impairments, it also presents challenges for evaluating how much a patient contributes to observed movements during training. Our approach employs established methods of inverse dynamics combined with measurements of human motion and interaction forces between the human and robot. Here, we investigated whether measures of patient active involvement predict the level of upper limb recovery due to robot-assisted therapy. Stroke survivors (n=11) completed 'exploration' training with customizable forces that increased their velocities (i.e., negative damping). While our results showed a mild trend between mechanical work during training and expanded velocity capability (Pearson r = 0.57), we found significant correlations with the amount of positive work (i.e., propulsion; r = 0.77), but not negative work (i.e., braking; r = 0.41). This work supports robotic tools that encourage more positive work.