Background: Individuals with cerebral palsy (CP) report physical fatigue as a main cause of limitation, deterioration and eventually cessation of their walking ability. A consequence of higher level of fatigue in individuals with CP leads to a less efficient and long-distance walking ability. Research question: This systematic review investigates the difference in 1) walking energy expenditure between individuals with CP and age-matched typically developing (TD) individuals; and 2) energetics of walking across Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS) levels and age. Methods: Five electronic databases (PubMed, Web of Science, CINAHL, ScienceDirect and Scopus) were searched using search terms related to CP and energetics of walking. Results: Forty-one studies met inclusion criteria. Thirty-one studies compared energy expenditure between CP and age-matched controls. Twelve studies correlated energy expenditure and oxygen cost across GMFCS levels. Three studies investigated the walking efficiency across different ages or over a time period. A significant increase of energy expenditure and oxygen cost was found in individuals with CP compared to TD age-matched individuals, with a strong relationship across GMFCS levels. Significance: Despite significant differences between individuals with CP compared to TD peers, variability in methods and testing protocols may play a confounding role. Analysis suggests oxygen cost being the preferred/unbiased physiological parameter to assess walking efficacy in CP. To date, there is a knowledge gap on age-related changes of walking efficiency across GMFCS levels and wider span of age ranges. Further systematic research looking at longitudinal age-related changes of energetics of walking in this population is warranted.
- Cerebral palsy
- Oxygen consumption
- Oxygen cost
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Orthopedics and Sports Medicine