Energy density comparison via highspeed, in-situ imaging of directed energy deposition

Samantha Webster, Kornel Ehmann, Jian Cao*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalConference articlepeer-review


Metal additive manufacturing has become an increasingly popular technology and receives interest from multiple business sectors that require optimally lightweight components and mass customization (aerospace, automotive, and medical device). Directed energy deposition (DED) is one of the main laser-based additive manufacturing processes, but a fundamental understanding of the process is lacking partly because it has not been the focus of highspeed, in-situ x-ray imaging studies like laser powder bed fusion has. A novel in-situ DED system is presented here, and an experimental study is performed to show that the small-scale system recovers processing parameter trends of a full-scale build. Observed meltpool lengths range from about 200 µm to 900 µm, while meltpool depths range from about 50 µm to 500 µm and can support high-fidelity modelling. Additionally, an investigation on the relationship between meltpool dimensions and global energy density GGEEDD' is performed. It was found that GGEEDD' is not a good predictor of meltpool dimensions due to the discrepancy in linear and exponential trends in laser powder and powder mass flowrate. Further studies and analysis using the presented novel DED system are needed to develop an appropriate energy density term to predict of meltpool dimension and clad height.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)691-696
Number of pages6
JournalProcedia Manufacturing
StatePublished - 2020
Event48th SME North American Manufacturing Research Conference, NAMRC 48 - Cincinnati, United States
Duration: Jun 22 2020Jun 26 2020


  • Directed energy deposition
  • Energy density
  • In-situ x-ray imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering
  • Artificial Intelligence

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