Enhanced Efficiency of Hot-Cast Large-Area Planar Perovskite Solar Cells/Modules Having Controlled Chloride Incorporation

Hsueh Chung Liao, Peijun Guo, Che Pu Hsu, Ma Lin, Binghao Wang, Li Zeng, Wei Huang, Chan Myae Myae Soe, Wei Fang Su, Michael J. Bedzyk, Michael R. Wasielewski, Antonio Facchetti, Robert P.H. Chang*, Mercouri G. Kanatzidis, Tobin J. Marks

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

170 Scopus citations


Organic–inorganic perovskite photovoltaics are an emerging solar technology. Developing materials and processing techniques that can be implemented in large-scale manufacturing is extremely important for realizing the potential of commercialization. Here we report a hot-casting process with controlled Cl incorporation which enables high stability and high power-conversion-efficiencies (PCEs) of 18.2% for small area (0.09 cm2) and 15.4% for large-area (≈1 cm2) single solar cells. The enhanced performance versus tri-iodide perovskites can be ascribed to longer carrier diffusion lengths, improved uniformity of the perovskite film morphology, favorable perovskite crystallite orientation, a halide concentration gradient in the perovskite film, and reduced recombination by introducing Cl. Additionally, Cl improves the device stability by passivating the reaction between I and the silver electrode. High-quality thin films deployed over a large-area 5 cm × 5 cm eight-cell module have been fabricated and exhibit an active-area PCE of 12.0%. The feasibility of material and processing strategies in industrial large-scale coating techniques is then shown by demonstrating a “dip-coating” process which shows promise for large throughput production of perovskite solar modules.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalAdvanced Energy Materials
Issue number8
StatePublished - Apr 19 2017


  • hot-casting
  • perovskite solar cells
  • power conversion efficiency
  • solution process

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Renewable Energy, Sustainability and the Environment
  • Materials Science(all)


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