Enhanced LiMn2O4Thin-Film Electrode Stability in Ionic Liquid Electrolyte: A Pathway to Suppress Mn Dissolution

Carlos G. Torres-Castanedo, Guennadi Evmenenko, Norman S. Luu, Paul Masih Das, Woo Jin Hyun, Kyu Young Park, Vinayak P. Dravid, Mark C. Hersam, Michael J. Bedzyk*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

4 Scopus citations


Spinel-type lithium manganese oxide (LiMn2O4) cathodes suffer from severe manganese dissolution in the electrolyte, compromising the cyclic stability of LMO-based Li-ion batteries (LIBs). In addition to causing structural and morphological deterioration to the cathode, dissolved Mn ions can migrate through the electrolyte to deposit on the anode, accelerating capacity fade. Here, we examine single-crystal epitaxial LiMn2O4(111) thin-films using synchrotron in situ X-ray diffraction and reflectivity to study the structural and interfacial evolution during cycling. Cyclic voltammetry is performed in a wide range (2.5-4.3 V vs Li/Li+) to promote Mn3+formation, which enhances dissolution, for two different electrolyte systems: an imidazolium ionic liquid containing lithium bis-(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (LiTFSI) and a conventional carbonate liquid electrolyte containing lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6). We find exceptional stability in this voltage range for the ionic liquid electrolyte compared to the conventional electrolyte, which is attributed to the absence of Mn dissolution in the ionic liquid. X-ray reflectivity shows a negligible loss of cathode material for the films cycled in the ionic liquid electrolyte, further confirmed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and transmission electron microscopy. Conversely, a substantial loss of Mn is found when the film is cycled in the conventional electrolyte. These findings show the significant advantages of ionic liquids in suppressing Mn dissolution in LiMn2O4LIB cathodes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)35664-35673
Number of pages10
JournalACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Issue number29
StatePublished - Jul 26 2023


  • LIB
  • LiMnO
  • epitaxial thin-films
  • in situ
  • ionic liquid
  • manganese dissolution

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Materials Science


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