Enhanced neutralizing antibody responses to rhinovirus c and age-dependent patterns of infection

Timothy Choi, Mark Devries, Leonard B. Bacharier, William Busse, Carlos A. Camargo, Robyn Cohen, Gregory P. Demuri, Michael D. Evans, Anne M. Fitzpatrick, Peter J. Gergen, Kristine Grindle, Rebecca Gruchalla, Tina Hartert, Kohei Hasegawa, Gurjit K.Khurana Hershey, Patrick Holt, Kiara Homil, Tuomas Jartti, Meyer Kattan, Carolyn KercsmarHaejin Kim, Ingrid A. Laing, Petra LeBeau, Kristine E. Lee, Peter N. Le Souëf, Andrew Liu, David T. Mauger, Carole Ober, Tressa Pappas, Shilpa J. Patel, Wanda Phipatanakul, Jacqueline Pongracic, Christine Seroogy, Peter D. Sly, Christopher Tisler, Ellen R. Wald, Robert Wood, Ronald Gangnon, Daniel J. Jackson, Robert F. Lemanske, James E. Gern, Yury A. Bochkov*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Rationale: Rhinovirus (RV) C can cause asymptomatic infection and respiratory illnesses ranging from the common cold to severe wheezing. Objectives: To identify how age and other individual-level factors are associated with susceptibility to RV-C illnesses. Methods: Longitudinal data from the COAST (Childhood Origins of Asthma) birth cohort study were analyzed to determine relationships between age and RV-C infections. Neutralizing antibodies specific for RV-A and RV-C (three types each) were determined using a novel PCR-based assay. Data were pooled from 14 study cohorts in the United States, Finland, and Australia, and mixed-effects logistic regression was used to identify factors related to the proportion of RV-C versus RV-A detection. Measurements and Main Results: In COAST, RV-A and RV-C infections were similarly common in infancy, whereas RV-C was detected muchless oftenthanRV-Aduring bothrespiratory illnesses andscheduled surveillance visits (P<0.001, x2) in older children. The prevalence of neutralizingantibodies toRV-AorRV-Ctypeswas low(5-27%) at the age of 2 years, but by the age of 16 years, RV-C seropositivity was more prevalent (78%vs. 18%for RV-A; P<0.0001). In the pooled analysis, the RV-C to RV-A detection ratio during illnesses was significantly related to age (P<0.0001), CDHR3 genotype (P<0.05), and wheezing illnesses (P<0.05). Furthermore, certain RV types (e.g., C2, C11, A78, and A12) were consistently more virulent and prevalent over time. Conclusions: Knowledge of prevalent RV types, antibody responses, and populations at risk based on age and genetics may guide the development of vaccines or other novel therapies against this important respiratory pathogen.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)822-830
Number of pages9
JournalAmerican journal of respiratory and critical care medicine
Issue number7
StatePublished - Apr 1 2021


  • CDHR3
  • Epidemiology
  • Genetics
  • Rhinovirus
  • Wheezing

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Critical Care and Intensive Care Medicine
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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