Enhancing data on nutrient composition of foods eaten by participants in the INTERMAP study in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States

Sally F. Schakel*, Barbara H. Dennis, A. Christine Wold, Rana Conway, Liancheng Zhao, Nagako Okuda, Akira Okayama, Alicia Moag-Stahlberg, Claire Robertson, Nancy Van Heel, I. Marilyn Buzzard, Jeremiah Stamler

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

50 Scopus citations


The International Study of Macronutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) is a four-country study investigating relationships between individual dietary intakes and blood pressure. Dietary intake patterns. of individuals were estimated for macronutrients (proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, alcohol) and their components (amino acids, fatty acids, starch), as well as minerals, vitamins, caffeine, and dietary fiber. The dietary assessment phase of the study involved collection of four 24-h recalls and two 24-h urine specimens from each of 4680 adults, ages 40-59, at 16 centers located in the People's Republic of China, Japan, the United Kingdom and the United States. For each country, an available database of nutrient composition of locally consumed foods was updated for use in the analysis of dietary data collected within the country. The four original databases differed in number and types of foods and nutrients included, analytic methods used to derive nutrients, and percentage of missing nutrient values. The Nutrition Coordinating Center at the University of Minnesota updated the original databases in several ways to overcome the foregoing limitations and increase comparability in the analyses of nutrient intake of individuals across the four countries: (1) addition of new foods and preparation methods reported by study participants; (2) addition of missing nutrient fields important to the study objectives; (3) imputation of missing nutrient values to provide complete nutrient data for each food reported by participants; and (4) use of adjustment factors to enhance comparability among estimates of nutrient intake obtained through each country's nutrient-coding methodology. It was possible to expand, enhance, and adjust the nutrient databases from the four countries to produce comparable (60 nutrients) or nearly comparable (ten nutrients) data on composition of all foods reported by INTERMAP participants.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)395-408
Number of pages14
JournalJournal of Food Composition and Analysis
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jun 2003


  • Dietary assessment
  • Food composition table
  • INTERMAP study
  • Nutrient database

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Food Science


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