Enhancing individual placement and support (IPS) - Supported employment: A Type 1 hybrid design randomized controlled trial to evaluate virtual reality job interview training among adults with severe mental illness

Matthew J. Smith*, Justin D. Smith, Michael F. Fleming, Neil Jordan, Eugene A. Oulvey, Morris D. Bell, Kim T. Mueser, Susan R. McGurk, E. Shawn Spencer, Kimberly Mailey, Lisa A. Razzano

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

2 Scopus citations


Individual Placement and Support (IPS) is the evidence-based model of supported employment that increases employment rates in adults with severe mental illness (SMI). Although IPS is largely successful, over 80% of adults with SMI remain unemployed. An enhancement to high fidelity IPS could be an evidence-based job interview training component. To meet this training need, our group recently completed a series of randomized controlled efficacy trials funded by the National Institute of Mental Health to develop and test virtual reality job interview training (VR-JIT) in a lab setting. The results demonstrated that the intervention was efficacious at helping trainees improve their job interview skills and receive job offers within six months of completing VR-JIT compared to non-trainees. The overarching goal of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of VR-JIT as an enhancement to IPS when delivered in a large community-based mental health service provider via a randomized controlled trial and initial process evaluation. Our aims are to: evaluate whether IPS services-as-usual in combination with VR-JIT, compared to IPS services-as-usual alone, enhances IPS outcomes for adults with SMI; evaluate mechanisms of employment outcomes and psychological distress; and conduct a multilevel, multidisciplinary, and mixed-method process evaluation of VR-JIT adoption and implementation to assess the acceptability, scalability, generalizability, and affordability of VR-JIT.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)86-97
Number of pages12
JournalContemporary Clinical Trials
StatePublished - Feb 2019


ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmacology (medical)

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