Enhancing On-Task Behavior in Fourth-Grade Students Using a Modified Color Wheel System

Carolyn Blondin*, Christopher Skinner, John Parkhurst, Allison Wood, Jamie Snyder

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


The authors used a withdrawal design to evaluate the effects of a modified Color Wheel System (M-CWS) on the on-task behavior of 7 students enrolled in the 4th grade. Standard CWS procedures were modified to include a 4th set of rules designed to set behavioral expectation for cooperative learning activities. Mean data showed that immediately after the M-CWS was applied, on-task behavior increased. In subsequent phases, on-task behavior immediately decreased when the M-CWS was withdrawn and immediately increased when it was reapplied, with no overlapping data across adjacent phases. For each participant, effects sizes calculated across the 3 adjacent phases revealed large effects for 20/21 comparisons. In addition to providing evidence of internal validity, these results demonstrate how educators can adapt the system.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)37-58
Number of pages22
JournalJournal of Applied School Psychology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 2012


  • contextual validity
  • modified color wheel system
  • on-task behavior
  • transitions

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Applied Psychology
  • Psychiatry and Mental health


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