Environmental toxicology of testicular cancer

Joshua J. Meeks, Joel Sheinfeld, Scott E. Eggener*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Objective: Testicular cancer incidence appears to be increasing. In many regions, industrialization results in the production of potentially carcinogenic environmental toxins. We review the available data linking environmental toxins to testicular germ cell tumors (TGCT). Methods: A PubMed review of the English literature was performed to identify studies evaluating the relationship between environmental toxins and TGCT. Results: Many environmental toxins have been implicated in the development of TGCT, including organochlorines, polychlorinated biphenyls, polyvinyl chlorides, phthalates, marijuana, and tobacco. Variable levels of evidence exist and significant study design limitations preclude a definitive etiologic role for individual environmental toxins. Conclusion: Environmental toxins may play an important but undetermined role in the development of TGCT. Further work is needed to evaluate specific toxins and TGCT carcinogenesis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)212-215
Number of pages4
JournalUrologic Oncology: Seminars and Original Investigations
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2012


  • Environmental exposure
  • Germ cell tumor
  • Testicular neoplasm

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Urology


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