Envisioning oneself as a leader: Comparisons of women and men in Spain and the United States

Lauren A. Killeen*, Esther López-Zafra, Alice H. Eagly

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

42 Scopus citations


In an examination of aspirations for leadership in the United States and Spain, male and female students envisioned themselves as a chief executive officer, vice president, or mid-level manager in an industry with a feminine image (clothing manufacturing) or a masculine image (auto manufacturing). Although men and women perceived these roles as equally positive, women perceived them as less possible and less facultative of close relationships and gender relationships. Other gender effects included more positive perceptions of the roles by women in the feminine industry and by men in the masculine industry. Cross-nationally men perceived the roles as more positive than women did only in Spain, and U.S. students perceived the roles as more possible than Spanish students did.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)312-322
Number of pages11
JournalPsychology of Women Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gender Studies
  • Developmental and Educational Psychology
  • Arts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
  • General Psychology


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