Eosinophilic Esophagitis Reference Score Accurately Identifies Disease Activity and Treatment Effects in Children

Joshua Brian Wechsler, Scott M. Bolton, Katie Amsden, Barry K Wershil, Ikuo Hirano, Amir F Kagalwalla*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

13 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background & Aims: The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. Methods: We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2–17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016. Findings from 192 diagnostic endoscopies and 229 post-treatment endoscopies were evaluated, from 371 children. Incident EoE cases were diagnosed based on 2011 consensus guidelines. Patients were treated with either elimination diet or topical steroids. Subjects who underwent endoscopy for symptoms of esophageal dysfunction but had normal esophageal findings from histology analysis were used as controls. EREFS and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for incident EoE cases (n = 77) vs controls (n = 115), patients with active EoE (n = 101) vs inactive EoE after treatment (n = 128), and paired pre- and post-treatment cases of EoE (n = 85). Component and composite scores were correlated with eosinophilia. Results: Visual detection of more than 1 esophageal abnormality during the diagnostic endoscopy identified children with EoE with 89.6% sensitivity and 87.9% specificity. EREFS correlated with peak level of eosinophilia (P <.001) at all esophageal levels. Children who responded to therapy had mean EREFSs of 0.5 compared to 2.4 in non-responders. In comparing pre-treatment vs post-treatment data from 85 patients, we found a significant reduction in the composite EREFS (from 2.4 to 0.7) (P <.001) among patients who responded to treatment; 92% of responders had a reduced EREFSs after treatment. EREFSs identified children with EoE with an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.93. EREFSs identified children with active EoE following treatment with an AUC of 0.81 before treatment and an AUC of 0.79 after treatment. Conclusions: In a prospective study of children undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy, we found the EREFS to accurately identify those with EoE. Children who responded to therapy had lower EREFS scores than non-responders. EREFSs can be used to measure outcomes of pediatric patients, in conjunction with histology findings, and assess treatments for children with EoE.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1056-1063
Number of pages8
JournalClinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Volume16
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2018

Fingerprint

Eosinophilic Esophagitis
Endoscopy
Therapeutics
Area Under Curve
Eosinophilia
Histology
Prospective Studies

Keywords

  • Biomarker
  • Esophagus
  • Inflammation
  • Metric

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Hepatology
  • Gastroenterology

Cite this

@article{9f84dbf9af274aaca1c876cf79cd3a4b,
title = "Eosinophilic Esophagitis Reference Score Accurately Identifies Disease Activity and Treatment Effects in Children",
abstract = "Background & Aims: The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. Methods: We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2–17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016. Findings from 192 diagnostic endoscopies and 229 post-treatment endoscopies were evaluated, from 371 children. Incident EoE cases were diagnosed based on 2011 consensus guidelines. Patients were treated with either elimination diet or topical steroids. Subjects who underwent endoscopy for symptoms of esophageal dysfunction but had normal esophageal findings from histology analysis were used as controls. EREFS and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for incident EoE cases (n = 77) vs controls (n = 115), patients with active EoE (n = 101) vs inactive EoE after treatment (n = 128), and paired pre- and post-treatment cases of EoE (n = 85). Component and composite scores were correlated with eosinophilia. Results: Visual detection of more than 1 esophageal abnormality during the diagnostic endoscopy identified children with EoE with 89.6{\%} sensitivity and 87.9{\%} specificity. EREFS correlated with peak level of eosinophilia (P <.001) at all esophageal levels. Children who responded to therapy had mean EREFSs of 0.5 compared to 2.4 in non-responders. In comparing pre-treatment vs post-treatment data from 85 patients, we found a significant reduction in the composite EREFS (from 2.4 to 0.7) (P <.001) among patients who responded to treatment; 92{\%} of responders had a reduced EREFSs after treatment. EREFSs identified children with EoE with an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.93. EREFSs identified children with active EoE following treatment with an AUC of 0.81 before treatment and an AUC of 0.79 after treatment. Conclusions: In a prospective study of children undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy, we found the EREFS to accurately identify those with EoE. Children who responded to therapy had lower EREFS scores than non-responders. EREFSs can be used to measure outcomes of pediatric patients, in conjunction with histology findings, and assess treatments for children with EoE.",
keywords = "Biomarker, Esophagus, Inflammation, Metric",
author = "Wechsler, {Joshua Brian} and Bolton, {Scott M.} and Katie Amsden and Wershil, {Barry K} and Ikuo Hirano and Kagalwalla, {Amir F}",
year = "2018",
month = "7",
day = "1",
doi = "10.1016/j.cgh.2017.12.019",
language = "English (US)",
volume = "16",
pages = "1056--1063",
journal = "Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology",
issn = "1542-3565",
publisher = "W.B. Saunders Ltd",
number = "7",

}

TY - JOUR

T1 - Eosinophilic Esophagitis Reference Score Accurately Identifies Disease Activity and Treatment Effects in Children

AU - Wechsler, Joshua Brian

AU - Bolton, Scott M.

AU - Amsden, Katie

AU - Wershil, Barry K

AU - Hirano, Ikuo

AU - Kagalwalla, Amir F

PY - 2018/7/1

Y1 - 2018/7/1

N2 - Background & Aims: The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. Methods: We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2–17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016. Findings from 192 diagnostic endoscopies and 229 post-treatment endoscopies were evaluated, from 371 children. Incident EoE cases were diagnosed based on 2011 consensus guidelines. Patients were treated with either elimination diet or topical steroids. Subjects who underwent endoscopy for symptoms of esophageal dysfunction but had normal esophageal findings from histology analysis were used as controls. EREFS and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for incident EoE cases (n = 77) vs controls (n = 115), patients with active EoE (n = 101) vs inactive EoE after treatment (n = 128), and paired pre- and post-treatment cases of EoE (n = 85). Component and composite scores were correlated with eosinophilia. Results: Visual detection of more than 1 esophageal abnormality during the diagnostic endoscopy identified children with EoE with 89.6% sensitivity and 87.9% specificity. EREFS correlated with peak level of eosinophilia (P <.001) at all esophageal levels. Children who responded to therapy had mean EREFSs of 0.5 compared to 2.4 in non-responders. In comparing pre-treatment vs post-treatment data from 85 patients, we found a significant reduction in the composite EREFS (from 2.4 to 0.7) (P <.001) among patients who responded to treatment; 92% of responders had a reduced EREFSs after treatment. EREFSs identified children with EoE with an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.93. EREFSs identified children with active EoE following treatment with an AUC of 0.81 before treatment and an AUC of 0.79 after treatment. Conclusions: In a prospective study of children undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy, we found the EREFS to accurately identify those with EoE. Children who responded to therapy had lower EREFS scores than non-responders. EREFSs can be used to measure outcomes of pediatric patients, in conjunction with histology findings, and assess treatments for children with EoE.

AB - Background & Aims: The endoscopic reference score (EREFS) is used to determine severity of 5 endoscopic findings: edema, rings, exudates, furrows, and strictures. Little is known about the relationship between EREFSs and histologic markers of disease activity in children with eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). We aimed to determine whether the EREFS can be used to identify children with EoE and how it changes with treatment. Methods: We performed a prospective study of consecutive children (ages 2–17 years) undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy scored real-time with EREFS from December 2012 through 2016. Findings from 192 diagnostic endoscopies and 229 post-treatment endoscopies were evaluated, from 371 children. Incident EoE cases were diagnosed based on 2011 consensus guidelines. Patients were treated with either elimination diet or topical steroids. Subjects who underwent endoscopy for symptoms of esophageal dysfunction but had normal esophageal findings from histology analysis were used as controls. EREFS and receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for incident EoE cases (n = 77) vs controls (n = 115), patients with active EoE (n = 101) vs inactive EoE after treatment (n = 128), and paired pre- and post-treatment cases of EoE (n = 85). Component and composite scores were correlated with eosinophilia. Results: Visual detection of more than 1 esophageal abnormality during the diagnostic endoscopy identified children with EoE with 89.6% sensitivity and 87.9% specificity. EREFS correlated with peak level of eosinophilia (P <.001) at all esophageal levels. Children who responded to therapy had mean EREFSs of 0.5 compared to 2.4 in non-responders. In comparing pre-treatment vs post-treatment data from 85 patients, we found a significant reduction in the composite EREFS (from 2.4 to 0.7) (P <.001) among patients who responded to treatment; 92% of responders had a reduced EREFSs after treatment. EREFSs identified children with EoE with an area under the curve value (AUC) of 0.93. EREFSs identified children with active EoE following treatment with an AUC of 0.81 before treatment and an AUC of 0.79 after treatment. Conclusions: In a prospective study of children undergoing diagnostic or post-treatment endoscopy, we found the EREFS to accurately identify those with EoE. Children who responded to therapy had lower EREFS scores than non-responders. EREFSs can be used to measure outcomes of pediatric patients, in conjunction with histology findings, and assess treatments for children with EoE.

KW - Biomarker

KW - Esophagus

KW - Inflammation

KW - Metric

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=85042675528&partnerID=8YFLogxK

UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/citedby.url?scp=85042675528&partnerID=8YFLogxK

U2 - 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.12.019

DO - 10.1016/j.cgh.2017.12.019

M3 - Article

C2 - 29248734

AN - SCOPUS:85042675528

VL - 16

SP - 1056

EP - 1063

JO - Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

JF - Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology

SN - 1542-3565

IS - 7

ER -