Eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders (EGID) are characterized pathologically by excess eosinophils in mucosal biopsies of one or multiple sites in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, simultaneously or sequentially. Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is the best characterized EGID, and in most patients it is an abnormal immune-mediated response to food antigens. Current recommendations for diagnosis include signs and symptoms of esophageal dysfunction that do not respond to proton-pump inhibitor therapy, and esophageal biopsies that exhibit at least 15 intraepithelial eosinophils in at least one high power field (HPF). Therapy consists of swallowed glucocorticoids or dietary elimination. Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) is the second most common form of EGID, but like all forms of EGID except EoE consensus recommendations for either clinical or pathological diagnosis do not exist. EG may be associated clinically with peripheral blood eosinophilia, hypoalbuminemia, and anemia, and pathologically with marked expansion of lamina propria by dense eosinophilic infiltrates. Eosinophilic enteritis (EE) may be subdivided into eosinophilic duodenitis, eosinophilic jejunitis, and eosinophilic ileitis. Most investigators believe that EE rarely, if ever, exists as a solitary form of EGID and is encountered only in patients who have at least one other affected portion of the GI tract. Eosinophilic colitis (EC) is perhaps the most enigmatic EGID. Distinction of EC from inflammatory bowel disease may be problematic especially in children. Multiple possible etiologies for EGID include hypereosinophilic syndrome, drug reactions, etc. Currently, the only etiology that can be identified histologically is parasitic infestation, if a portion of an invasive parasite is found in mucosal biopsies. This review will provide guidelines for the pathologic diagnosis of the various forms of EGID.
- Inflammatory bowel disease
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