Previously considered a rare condition, eosinophilic oesophagitis (EoE) has become increasingly recognized as an important cause of dysphagia and food impactions in adults. This is likely attributable to a combination of an increasing incidence of EoE and a growing awareness of the condition. EoE may occur in isolation or in conjunction with eosinophilic gastroenteritis. However, the burgeoning field is likely attributable to the variant that uniquely affects the oesophagus. Adults classically present with symptoms of dysphagia, food impactions, and heartburn. Typical endoscopic features include concentric mucosal rings, linear furrowing, white plaques or exudates and a narrow caliber oesophagus. In some cases, the endoscopic features may appear normal. For years, EoE went unrecognized because eosinophilic infiltration was accepted as a manifestation of reflux, which continues to be a confounding factor in some patients. Current consensus is that the diagnosis of EoE is established by 1) the presence of symptoms, especially dysphagia and food impactions in adults, 2) ≥15 eosinophils per high power field in oesophageal tissue, and 3) exclusion of other disorders with similar presentations such as GERD. Current understanding of EoE pathophysiology and natural history are limited but the entity has been increasingly linked to food allergies and aeroallergens. The main treatment options for EoE are proton pump inhibitors, dietary manipulation, and topical or oral glucocorticoids. This review highlights recent insights into EoE in adults although, clearly, much of the available data overlap with pediatrics and, occasionally, with eosinophilic gastroenteritis.
- Eosinophilic oesophagitis
- Food allergy
- Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Endocrine and Autonomic Systems