An epidemiologic analysis was accomplished of cardiovascular-renal mortality by age, race, sex, and occupation for the Chicago population aged 25 to 64 in 1951 and 1953. The following were the principal findings: 1. Arteriosclerotic heart disease (ASHD) death rates were severalfold higher in men than women. This sex differential was greater in whites than nonwhites, chiefly because of the higher mortality rates in nonwhite females. Nonwhite male death rates for ASHD were similar to those for white males. No significant occupation group differences in age-specific ASHD death rates were observed for middle-aged men. 2. Hypertensive disease death rates were severalfold higher in nonwhites than whites, without a gross sex differential. This pattern also prevailed for cerebrovascular diseases, nephritis and nephrosis. An evaluation was made of deaths attributed to Other Myocardial Degeneration and Other Diseases of the Heart, particularly in relationship to mortality patterns for ASHD and hypertensive disease. An analysis was also accomplished of deaths certified by the coroner's physicians. Consideration was given to the bearing of the findings upon current theories concerning the etiology of these diseases.
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