Epidemiology and outcome of the cardio-renal syndrome

Dinna N. Cruz, Mihai Gheorghiade, Alberto Palazuolli, Claudio Ronco, Sean M. Bagshaw*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

32 Scopus citations


Cardiac and kidney disease are common, increasingly encountered and often co-exist. Recently, the Acute Dialysis Quality Initiative (ADQI) Working Group convened a consensus conference to develop a classification scheme for the CRS and for five discrete subtypes. These CRS subtypes likely share pathophysiologic mechanisms, however, also have distinguishing clinical features, in terms of precipitating events, risk identification, natural history and outcomes. Knowledge of the epidemiology of heart-kidney interaction stratified by the proposed CRS subtypes is increasingly important for understanding the overall burden of disease for each CRS subtype, along with associated morbidity, mortality and health resource utilization. Likewise, an understanding of the epidemiology of CRS is necessary for characterizing whether there exists important knowledge gaps and to aid the in the design of clinical studies. In the most recent European and American guidelines for heart failure management, acute kidney injury and dysfunction were considered an index of poor prognosis. Paradoxically, however, in many randomized trials of interventions for patients with heart failure, those with kidney injury or dysfunction are often excluded. This review will provide a summary of the epidemiology of the cardio-renal syndrome and its subtypes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)531-542
Number of pages12
JournalHeart Failure Reviews
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Acute coronary syndrome
  • Acute kidney injury
  • Cardio-renal syndrome
  • Chronic kidney disease
  • Heart failure
  • Mortality
  • Prevention

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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