Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe

Miguel Cainzos-Achirica*, Ugo Fedeli, Naveed Sattar, Charles Agyemang, Anne K. Jenum, John W. McEvoy, Jack D. Murphy, Carlos Brotons, Roberto Elosua, Usama Bilal, Alka M. Kanaya, Namratha R Kandula, Pablo Martinez-Amezcua, Josep Comin-Colet, Xavier Pinto

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

Abstract

South Asian (SA)individuals represent a large, growing population in a number of European countries. These individuals, particularly first-generation SA immigrants, are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and coronary heart disease than most other racial/ethnic groups living in Europe. SAs also have an increased risk of stroke compared to European-born individuals. Despite a large body of conclusive evidence, SA-specific cardiovascular health promotion and preventive interventions are currently scarce in most European countries, as well as at the European Union level. In this narrative review, we aim to increase awareness among clinicians and healthcare authorities of the public health importance of cardiovascular disease among SAs living in Europe, as well as the need for tailored interventions targeting this group – particularly, in countries where SA immigration is a recent phenomenon. To this purpose, we review key studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in SAs living in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other European countries. Building on these, we discuss potential opportunities for multi-level, targeted, tailored cardiovascular prevention strategies. Because lifestyle interventions often face important cultural barriers in SAs, particularly for first-generation immigrants; we also discuss features that may help maximise the effectiveness of those interventions. Finally, we evaluate knowledge gaps, currently available risk stratification tools such as QRISK-3, and future directions in this important field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)105-113
Number of pages9
JournalAtherosclerosis
Volume286
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 1 2019

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Epidemiology
Cardiovascular Diseases
Emigration and Immigration
European Union
Denmark
Norway
Dyslipidemias
Health Promotion
Ethnic Groups
Sweden
Spain
Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus
Italy
Coronary Disease
Life Style
Public Health
Stroke
Delivery of Health Care
Population
United Kingdom

Keywords

  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Coronary heart disease
  • Diabetes
  • Physical activity
  • Prevention
  • South Asian

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

Cite this

Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel ; Fedeli, Ugo ; Sattar, Naveed ; Agyemang, Charles ; Jenum, Anne K. ; McEvoy, John W. ; Murphy, Jack D. ; Brotons, Carlos ; Elosua, Roberto ; Bilal, Usama ; Kanaya, Alka M. ; Kandula, Namratha R ; Martinez-Amezcua, Pablo ; Comin-Colet, Josep ; Pinto, Xavier. / Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe. In: Atherosclerosis. 2019 ; Vol. 286. pp. 105-113.
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abstract = "South Asian (SA)individuals represent a large, growing population in a number of European countries. These individuals, particularly first-generation SA immigrants, are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and coronary heart disease than most other racial/ethnic groups living in Europe. SAs also have an increased risk of stroke compared to European-born individuals. Despite a large body of conclusive evidence, SA-specific cardiovascular health promotion and preventive interventions are currently scarce in most European countries, as well as at the European Union level. In this narrative review, we aim to increase awareness among clinicians and healthcare authorities of the public health importance of cardiovascular disease among SAs living in Europe, as well as the need for tailored interventions targeting this group – particularly, in countries where SA immigration is a recent phenomenon. To this purpose, we review key studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in SAs living in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other European countries. Building on these, we discuss potential opportunities for multi-level, targeted, tailored cardiovascular prevention strategies. Because lifestyle interventions often face important cultural barriers in SAs, particularly for first-generation immigrants; we also discuss features that may help maximise the effectiveness of those interventions. Finally, we evaluate knowledge gaps, currently available risk stratification tools such as QRISK-3, and future directions in this important field.",
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Cainzos-Achirica, M, Fedeli, U, Sattar, N, Agyemang, C, Jenum, AK, McEvoy, JW, Murphy, JD, Brotons, C, Elosua, R, Bilal, U, Kanaya, AM, Kandula, NR, Martinez-Amezcua, P, Comin-Colet, J & Pinto, X 2019, 'Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe', Atherosclerosis, vol. 286, pp. 105-113. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2019.05.014

Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe. / Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Fedeli, Ugo; Sattar, Naveed; Agyemang, Charles; Jenum, Anne K.; McEvoy, John W.; Murphy, Jack D.; Brotons, Carlos; Elosua, Roberto; Bilal, Usama; Kanaya, Alka M.; Kandula, Namratha R; Martinez-Amezcua, Pablo; Comin-Colet, Josep; Pinto, Xavier.

In: Atherosclerosis, Vol. 286, 01.07.2019, p. 105-113.

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

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T1 - Epidemiology, risk factors, and opportunities for prevention of cardiovascular disease in individuals of South Asian ethnicity living in Europe

AU - Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel

AU - Fedeli, Ugo

AU - Sattar, Naveed

AU - Agyemang, Charles

AU - Jenum, Anne K.

AU - McEvoy, John W.

AU - Murphy, Jack D.

AU - Brotons, Carlos

AU - Elosua, Roberto

AU - Bilal, Usama

AU - Kanaya, Alka M.

AU - Kandula, Namratha R

AU - Martinez-Amezcua, Pablo

AU - Comin-Colet, Josep

AU - Pinto, Xavier

PY - 2019/7/1

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N2 - South Asian (SA)individuals represent a large, growing population in a number of European countries. These individuals, particularly first-generation SA immigrants, are at higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes, atherogenic dyslipidaemia, and coronary heart disease than most other racial/ethnic groups living in Europe. SAs also have an increased risk of stroke compared to European-born individuals. Despite a large body of conclusive evidence, SA-specific cardiovascular health promotion and preventive interventions are currently scarce in most European countries, as well as at the European Union level. In this narrative review, we aim to increase awareness among clinicians and healthcare authorities of the public health importance of cardiovascular disease among SAs living in Europe, as well as the need for tailored interventions targeting this group – particularly, in countries where SA immigration is a recent phenomenon. To this purpose, we review key studies on the epidemiology and risk factors of cardiovascular disease in SAs living in the United Kingdom, Italy, Spain, Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and other European countries. Building on these, we discuss potential opportunities for multi-level, targeted, tailored cardiovascular prevention strategies. Because lifestyle interventions often face important cultural barriers in SAs, particularly for first-generation immigrants; we also discuss features that may help maximise the effectiveness of those interventions. Finally, we evaluate knowledge gaps, currently available risk stratification tools such as QRISK-3, and future directions in this important field.

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KW - Diabetes

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