Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) directly influence thrombus formation and degradation and thereby risk for arterial thrombosis. Activation of the renin-angiotensin system has been linked to the production of PAI-1 expression via the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R). In addition, bradykinin can induce the release of t-PA through a B2 receptor mechanism. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the epistatic effects of polymorphisms in genes from the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels in a large population-based sample (n = 2527). We demonstrated a strong significant interaction within genetic variations of the bradykinin B2 gene (P = 0.002) and between ACE and bradykinin B2 (p = 0.003) polymorphisms on t-PA levels in females. In males, polymorphisms in the bradykinin B2 and AT1R gene showed the most strong effect on t-PA levels (P = 0.006). In both females and males, the bradykinin B2 gene interacted with AT1R gene on plasma PAI-1 levels (P = 0.026 and P = 0.039, respectively). In addition, the current study found a borderline significant interaction between PAI 4G5G and ACE I/D on plasma t-PA and PAI-1 levels. These results support the idea that the interplay between the renin-angiotensin, bradykinin, and fibrinolytic systems might play an important role in t-PA and PAI-1 biology.
- Gene-gene interaction
ASJC Scopus subject areas