Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) including epoxide-modified ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids are made via oxidation to create highly polarized carbon-oxygen bonds crucial to their function as signaling molecules. A critical PUFA, arachidonic acid (ARA), is metabolized to a diverse set of lipids signaling molecules through cyclooxygenase (COX), lipoxygenase (LOX), cytochrome P450 epoxygenase, or cytochrome P450 hydroxylase; however, the majority of ARA is metabolized into anti-inflammatory epoxides via cytochrome P450 enzymes. These short-lived epoxide lipids are rapidly metabolized or inactivated by the soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) into diol-containing products. sEH inhibition or knockout has been a practical approach to study the biology of the epoxide lipids, and has been shown to effectively treat inflammatory conditions in the preclinical models including gastrointestinal ulcers and colitis by shifting oxylipins to epoxide profiles, inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and activation, and enhancing epithelial cell defense via increased mucin production, thus providing further evidence for the role of sEH as a pro-inflammatory protein. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) with COX-inhibitor activity are among the most commonly used analgesics and have demonstrated applications in the management of cardiovascular disease and intriguingly cancer. Major side effects of NSAIDs however are gastrointestinal ulcers which frequently precludes their long-term application. In this review, we hope to bridge the gap between NSAID toxicity and sEH-mediated metabolic pathways to focus on the role of epoxy fatty acid metabolic pathway of PUFAs in NSAIDS-ulcer formation and healing as well as inflammation-related carcinogenesis. Specifically we address the potential application of sEH inhibition to enhance ulcer healing at the site of inflammation via their activity on altered lipid signaling, mitochondrial function, and diminished reactive oxygen species, and further discuss the significance of dual COX and sEH inhibitor in anti-inflammation and carcinogenesis.
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug
- Soluble epoxide hydrolase
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pharmacology (medical)