EShiver: Lateral Force Feedback on Fingertips through Oscillatory Motion of an Electroadhesive Surface

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21 Scopus citations


We describe a new haptic force feedback device capable of creating lateral shear force on a bare fingertip - the eShiver. The eShiver creates a net lateral force from in-plane oscillatory motion of a surface synchronized with a 'friction switch' based on Johnsen-Rahbek electroadhesion. Using an artificial finger, a maximum net lateral force of ± 300 mN is achieved at 55 Hz lateral oscillation frequency, and net force is shown to be a function of velocity and applied voltage, as well as the phase between them. A second set of experiments is carried out on a human finger, and a lateral force of up to ± 450 mN is achieved at a lateral oscillation frequency of 1,000 Hz. This force is reached at a peak lateral surface velocity of 400 mm/s and a peak applied voltage of 400 V. We develop a simple lumped parameter model of the eShiver, and a time domain simulation of the artificial finger is shown to agree with the experimental results. Three distinct zones of operation are found, which predict the limitations of force generation and which may be used for optimization. The human finger is found to be similar to the artificial finger in its dependence on actuation parameters, suggesting that the same lumped parameter model may be applied, albeit with different parameters. Curiously, the friction force due to Johnsen-Rahbek electroadhesion is found to increase substantially over time as the finger remains in contact with the surface. Considerations for optimizing the performance of the eShiver are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number7747453
Pages (from-to)358-370
Number of pages13
JournalIEEE Transactions on Haptics
Issue number3
StatePublished - Jul 1 2017


  • Haptics
  • electroadhesion
  • electrostatics
  • electrovibration
  • force feedback
  • haptic display
  • surface haptics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Human-Computer Interaction
  • Computer Science Applications


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