Estimating 24-Hour Urinary Excretion of Sodium and Potassium Is More Reliable from 24-Hour Urine Than Spot Urine Sample in a Feeding Study of US Older Postmenopausal Women

Lesley F. Tinker*, Ying Huang, Karen C. Johnson, Laura D. Carbone, Linda Snetselaar, Linda Van Horn, Jo Ann E. Manson, Simin Liu, Yasmin Mossavar-Rahmani, Ross L. Prentice, Johanna W. Lampe, Marian L. Neuhouser

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Assessing estimated sodium (Na) and potassium (K) intakes derived from 24-h urinary excretions compared with a spot urine sample, if comparable, could reduce participant burden in epidemiologic and clinical studies. Objectives: In a 2-week controlled-feeding study, Na and K excretions from a 24-h urine collection were compared with a first-void spot urine sample, applying established algorithms and enhanced models to estimate 24-h excretion. Actual and estimated 24-h excretions were evaluated relative to mean daily Na and K intakes in the feeding study. Methods: A total of 153 older postmenopausal women ages 75.4 ± 3.5 y participated in a 2-wk controlled-feeding study with a 4-d repeating menu cycle based on their usual intake ( Identifier: NCT00000611). Of the 150 participants who provided both a first-void spot urine sample and a 24-h urine collection on the penultimate study day, statistical methods included Pearson correlations for Na and K between intake, 24-h collections, and the 24-h estimated excretions using 4 established algorithms: Enhanced biomarker models by regressing ln-transformed intakes on ln-transformed 24-h excretions or ln-transformed 24-h estimated excretions plus participant characteristics and sensitivity analyses for factors potentially influencing Na or K excretion (e.g., possible kidney disease estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min/1.73 m2). Results: Pearson correlation coefficients between Na and K intakes and actual 24-h excretions were 0.57 and 0.38-0.44 for estimated 24-h excretions, depending on electrolyte and algorithm used. Enhanced biomarker model cross-validated R2 (CVR2) for 24-h excretions were 38.5% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 42.0% (Na/K). After excluding participants with possible kidney disease, the CVR2 values were 43.2% (Na), 40.2% (K), and 38.1% (Na/K). Conclusions: Twenty-four-hour urine excretion measurement performs better than estimated 24-h excretion from a spot urine as a biomarker for Na and K intake among a sample of primarily White postmenopausal women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbernzab125
JournalCurrent Developments in Nutrition
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2021


  • 24-hour urine
  • biomarker
  • controlled-feeding study
  • postmenopausal women
  • potassium
  • sodium
  • spot urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Medicine (miscellaneous)
  • Food Science
  • Nutrition and Dietetics


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