Estimating systolic blood pressure intervention trial participant posttrial survival using pooled epidemiologic cohort data

Brandon K. Bellows*, Yiyi Zhang, Zugui Zhang, Donald M. Lloyd-Jones, Adam P. Bress, Jordan B. King, Paul Kolm, William C. Cushman, Karen C. Johnson, Leonardo Tamariz, Elizabeth C. Oelsner, Steven Shea, Anne B. Newman, Diane G. Ives, David Couper, Andrew E. Moran, William S. Weintraub

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


BACKGROUND: Intensive systolic blood pressure treatment (<120 mm Hg) in SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) improved survival compared with standard treatment (<140 mm Hg) over a median follow-up of 3.3 years. We projected life expectancy after observed follow-up in SPRINT using SPRINT-eligible participants in the NHLBI-PCS (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Pooled Cohorts Study). METHODS AND RESULTS: We used propensity scores to weight SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants to resemble SPRINT participants. In SPRINT participants, we estimated in-trial survival (<4 years) using a time-based flexible parametric survival model. In SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants, we estimated posttrial survival (≥4 years) using an age-based flexible parametric survival model and applied the formula to SPRINT participants to predict posttrial survival. We projected overall life expectancy for each SPRINT participant and compared it to parametric regression (eg, Gompertz) projections based on SPRINT data alone. We included 8584 SPRINT and 10 593 SPRINT-eligible NHLBI-PCS participants. After propensity weighting, mean (SD) age was 67.9 (9.4) and 68.2 (8.8) years, and 35.5% and 37.6% were women in SPRINT and NHLBI-PCS, respectively. Using the NHLBI-PCS– based method, projected mean life expectancy from randomization was 21.0 (7.4) years with intensive and 19.1 (7.2) years with standard treatment. Using the Gompertz regression, life expectancy was 11.2 (2.3) years with intensive and 10.5 (2.2) years with standard treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Combining SPRINT and NHLBI-PCS observed data likely offers a more realistic estimate of life expectancy than parametrically extrapolating SPRINT data alone. These results offer insight into the potential long-term effectiveness of intensive SBP goals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere020361
JournalJournal of the American Heart Association
Issue number10
StatePublished - 2021


  • Hypertension
  • Life expectancy
  • Survival

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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