Ethnicity and smoking status are associated with awareness of smoking related genitourinary diseases

Marc A. Bjurlin, Matthew R. Cohn, Vincent L. Freeman, Lindsay M. Lombardo, Stephen D. Hurley, Courtney M P Hollowell*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

14 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose: Cigarette smoking is a recognized risk factor for kidney cancer, bladder cancer and erectile dysfunction. However, little is known regarding patient knowledge of these associations. We evaluated awareness of smoking as a risk factor for genitourinary disease and identified variables associated with awareness. Materials and Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study in a convenience sample of 535 patients who presented to a urology clinic at a major public hospital between 2009 and 2011. Patient demographics and knowledge were captured in a self-reported questionnaire evaluating awareness of smoking as a risk factor for bladder, kidney and lung cancer, and erectile dysfunction. Factors associated with the awareness of smoking and genitourinary disease were identified by multivariable logistic regression. Results: Urology patients generally had low overall awareness of smoking related genitourinary disease. Only 33.5%, 25.2% and 24.2% of patients identified smoking as a risk factor for kidney cancer, bladder cancer and erectile dysfunction, respectively, compared to 94.0% who identified it as a risk factor for lung cancer. Patients from ethnic minorities and current smokers consistently showed a more pronounced lack of awareness of the link between smoking and these diseases. Generally Hispanic and black patients were 2 to 3 times more likely than white patients to be unaware of the association of smoking with the diseases (p = 0.0019 to 0.059). Smokers were twice as likely as nonsmokers to be unaware of the link of smoking with kidney and bladder cancer (p = 0.025 and 0.0509, respectively). Conclusions: Our study highlights the need for increased awareness of smoking related genitourinary diseases, especially among minority patients and smokers. This study draws attention to an opportunity for urologists to provide smoking cessation assistance and education for this patient population.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)724-728
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Volume188
Issue number3
DOIs
StatePublished - Sep 1 2012

Keywords

  • erectile dysfunction
  • ethnology
  • smoking
  • urogenital neoplasms
  • urogenital system

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology

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