Background: S100B is a calcium-binding protein found primarily in glial cells. In the setting of neuronal injury and disruption of the blood brain barrier, S100B can leak into the cerebrospinal fluid and systemic circulation. Objectives: To determine if serum S100B distinguishes patients with central neurosarcoidosis (NS) from patients with extra-neurologic sarcoidosis (ENS) and healthy controls, and if S100B levels correlate with MRI measures of disease burden. Methods: Patients were enrolled from the Cleveland Clinic Sarcoidosis Center. Patients with traumatic brain injury, central nervous system (CNS) infections, CNS malignancy, neurodegenerative disorders, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, or melanoma were excluded. S100B levels were compared between patients with NS, ENS, and healthy controls, and between NS patients with varying degrees of post-contrast enhancement on MRI. Results: Median (interquartile range) S100B levels were 101 pg/mL (92, 136) for 11 NS patients, 89 pg/mL (73, 107) for 11 ENS patients, and 60 pg/mL (39, 74) for 26 healthy controls. There was a significant difference between NS and control groups (p = 0.01). The difference between NS and ENS groups did not rise to the level of statistical significance (p = 0.178). S100B levels were significantly different between NS patients with varying degrees of enhancement on MRI (p = 0.04). Conclusions: S100B deserves additional study as a biomarker for CNS injury in NS. It may be useful as a longitudinal measure of disease activity.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine