Purpose: Cystinuria is a genetic disorder with both autosomal recessive and incompletely dominant inheritance. The disorder disrupts cystine and other dibasic amino acid transport in proximal tubules of the kidney, resulting in recurrent kidney stone formation. Currently, there are no consensus guidelines on evaluation and management of this disease. This article represents the consensus of the author panel and will provide clinicians with a stepwise framework for evaluation and clinical management of patients with cystinuria based on evidence in the existing literature. Materials and Methods: A search of MEDLINE®/PubMed® and Cochrane databases was performed using the following key words: "cystine nephrolithiasis,""cystinuria,""penicillamine, cystine,"and "tiopronin, cystine."In total, as of May 2018, these searches yielded 2335 articles, which were then evaluated for their relevance to the topic of evaluation and management of cystinuria. Evidence was evaluated by the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system. Results: Twenty-five articles on the topic of cystinuria or cystine nephrolithiasis were deemed suitable for inclusion in this study. The literature supports a logical evaluation process and step-wise treatment approach beginning with conservative measures: fluid intake and dietary modification. If stone formation recurs, proceed to pharmacotherapeutic options by first alkalinizing the urine and then using cystine-binding thiol drugs. Conclusions: The proposed clinical pathways provide a framework for efficient evaluation and treatment of patients with cystinuria, which should improve overall outcomes of this rare, but highly recurrent, form of nephrolithiasis.
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