Evaluation and treatment of female urinary incontinence

T. Gamble*, P. K. Sand

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

1 Scopus citations


Urinary incontinence is a very common and bothersome condition among women and can affect up to 50% of women during their lifetime. Older women are disproportionately affected and often view urinary incontinence as a normal part of aging, thus precluding contact with medical professionals. Physicians must therefore include questions regarding urinary incontinence as part of routine examinations. A simple, yet thorough history and physical examination along with basic testing can often aid the physician in making an accurate diagnosis and initiating effective treatment. Several interventions are available and are often chosen based on type and severity of urinary incontinence. These include conservative measures, pharmacotherapy, and surgical intervention. Also, innovative treatment modalities are constantly being investigated to manage urinary incontinence further expanding treatment options available to women.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)431-450
Number of pages20
JournalMinerva Urologica e Nefrologica
Issue number4
StatePublished - Dec 1 2007


  • Male
  • Urinary incontinence, diagnosis
  • Urinary incontinence, therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Nephrology
  • Urology

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