Evaluation of intranasal midazolam in children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy

Mark Fishbein*, Ralph A. Lugo, Jennifer Woodland, Barbara Lininger, Tom Linscheid

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


Background: Intravenous midazolam and opioids are used to produce conscious sedation in children undergoing esophago-gastroduodenoscopy (EGD). However, children may experience significant fear and anxiety before receiving these medications, especially during separation from parents and during venipuncture. Intranasal administration of midazolam represents a noninvasive method of sedating children before anxiety-producing events. The objective of this study was to determine whether premedication with intranasal midazolam reduces stress and anxiety of separation from parents and of undergoing venipuncture, while maintaining adequate sedation during EGD. Methods: This was a prospective, randomized, double-blind study in 40 children, aged 2 to 12 years, who were undergoing EGD. Patients in group I were premedicated with intranasal placebo (0.9% NaCl) followed 10 minutes later by intravenous midazolam (0.05 mg/kg) and intravenous meperidine (1 mg/kg). Patients in group II were premedicated with intranasal midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) followed by intravenous placebo (0.9% NaCl) and intravenous meperidine (1 mg/kg). Anxiolysis and sedation were scored by a blinded observer, who identified minor and major negative behaviors during four observation periods: intranasal drug administration, separation from parents, venipuncture, and EGD. Results: Premedication with intranasal midazolam significantly reduced negative behaviors during separation from parents (p < 0.05); however, no difference between regimens was noted during venipuncture or EGD. Negative behaviors appeared to increase during administration of intranasal midazolam or placebo. Conclusions: Premedication with intranasal midazolam is effective in reducing negative behaviors during separation from parents, while it maintains sedation during the endoscopic procedure. The benefits of intranasal administration may be negated, however, by irritation, and discomfort caused by intranasal drug delivery.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)261-266
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of pediatric gastroenterology and nutrition
Issue number3
StatePublished - Sep 1997


  • Conscious sedation
  • Intranasal drug administration
  • Midazolam

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Gastroenterology
  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health


Dive into the research topics of 'Evaluation of intranasal midazolam in children undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this