Evaluation of item candidates: The PROMIS qualitative item review

Darren A. DeWalt*, Nan Rothrock, Susan Yount, Arthur A. Stone

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

425 Scopus citations


One of the PROMIS (Patient-Reported Outcome Measurement Information System) networkĝ€™s primary goals is the development of a comprehensive item bank for patient-reported outcomes of chronic diseases. For its first set of item banks, PROMIS chose to focus on pain, fatigue, emotional distress, physical function, and social function. An essential step for the development of an item pool is the identification, evaluation, and revision of extant questionnaire items for the core item pool. In this work, we also describe the systematic process wherein items are classified for subsequent statistical processing by the PROMIS investigators. Six phases of item development are documented: identification of extant items, item classification and selection, item review and revision, focus group input on domain coverage, cognitive interviews with individual items, and final revision before field testing. Identification of items refers to the systematic search for existing items in currently available scales. Expert item review and revision was conducted by trained professionals who reviewed the wording of each item and revised as appropriate for conventions adopted by the PROMIS network. Focus groups were used to confirm domain definitions and to identify new areas of item development for future PROMIS item banks. Cognitive interviews were used to examine individual items. Items successfully screened through this process were sent to field testing and will be subjected to innovative scale construction procedures.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)S12-S21
JournalMedical care
Issue number5 SUPPL. 1
StatePublished - May 2007


  • Cognitive interviews
  • Patient-reported outcomes
  • Qualitative methods
  • Questionnaire development

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Public Health, Environmental and Occupational Health

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