Eveningness chronotype preference among individuals at clinical high risk for psychosis

Jessica R. Lunsford-Avery*, Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Stephanie A. Korenic, Jason Schiffman, Lauren M. Ellman, Leah Jackson, Vijay A. Mittal

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Background: Circadian rhythm disturbances are frequently implicated in psychosis. Indeed, research has suggested several avenues by which circadian rhythms may play a mechanistic role as well as contribute to clinical outcomes. Despite its potential role as a risk factor, little is known about circadian rhythm disruption among individuals at clinical high risk (CHR) for psychosis, clinical correlates, or specificity to the psychosis risk syndrome. Methods: Eighty-four CHR, 74 individuals with depressive disorders (DD), and 101 non-psychiatric controls (NPC) participated in structured clinical interviews and provided self-reports of chronotype preference. Clinical (positive, negative, anxious, and depressive symptoms) and social functioning outcomes were self-reported and/or clinician-rated. Analyses of covariance controlling for demographics examined group differences in chronotype preference, and partial Pearson correlations evaluated associations with clinical/functional outcomes. Results: Group differences were observed (F(11, 246) = 8.05, p < .001) with CHR and DD individuals indicating greater eveningness preference compared to NPC. A follow-up sensitivity analysis examining CHR participants with (n = 25) and without (n = 59) depressive disorders indicated no difference in chronotype preference (F(10,72) = 0.00, p = .99). Greater eveningness preference was related to greater negative symptoms (i.e., avolition; r = −0.25) and anxiety (r = −0.34) among CHR individuals. Conclusions: CHR and DD display greater preference for eveningness chronotype compared to NPC indicating the disruption is associated with a range of mental health concerns, and not specific to the psychosis-risk syndrome. However, comorbidity with DD did not appear to be driving the finding in the CHR group. Further research may examine shared versus non-shared underlying mechanisms contributing to chronotype preference across psychiatric presentations.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3-8
Number of pages6
JournalSchizophrenia Research
Volume236
DOIs
StatePublished - Oct 2021

Keywords

  • Chronotype
  • Circadian rhythms
  • Clinical high risk
  • Diurnal preference
  • Psychosis
  • Schizophrenia

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Psychiatry and Mental health
  • Biological Psychiatry

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