Evidence-Based management of calculous biliary disease for the acute care surgeon

Ben E. Biesterveld*, Hasan B. Alam

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Background: Gallstones and cholecystitis are common clinical problems. There is a wide spectrum of disease severity, from rare symptoms of biliary colic to severe cholecystitis with marked gallbladder infection and inflammation that can cause life-threatening sepsis. The care of such patients is similarly varied and multi-disciplinary. Despite the prevalence of cholecystitis, there remain questions about how to manage patients appropriately. Methods: A multi-disciplinary team created institutional cholecystitis guidelines, and supporting evidence was compiled for review. Results: Even in "routine"cholecystitis, patient triage and work-up can be variable, resulting in unnecessary tests and delay to cholecystectomy. Beyond this, there are new treatment options available that may serve special populations particularly well, although the appropriate pattern of emerging endoscopic and percutaneous treatment modalities is not well defined. Conclusions: This review outlines evidence-based management of cholecystitis from diagnosis to treatment with a focused discussion of special populations and emerging therapies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)121-130
Number of pages10
JournalSurgical Infections
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • cholangitis
  • cholecystitis
  • choledocholithiasis
  • cholelithiasis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Microbiology (medical)
  • Infectious Diseases


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