Evolution of Microstructure and Carbon Distribution During Heat Treatments of a Dual-Phase Steel

Modeling and Atom-Probe Tomography Experiments

Dong An, Sung Il Baik, Shiyan Pan, Mingfang Zhu*, Dieter Isheim, Bruce W. Krakauer, David N Seidman

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

The temporal evolution of microstructures and carbon distributions in a Fe-0.323C-1.231Mn-0.849Si (mol pct) dual-phase steel during heat treatments are simulated using a two-dimensional cellular automaton model. The model involves austenite nucleation, phase transformations controlled by ferrite (α)/austenite (γ) interface mobility and the local carbon concentration, and long-range carbon diffusion. It is also coupled with a solute drag model to account for the effect of substitutional elements on the interface migration. The results show that after holding at 800 °C for 300 seconds the transformed γ-volume fraction is lower than the paraequilibrium prediction. During subsequent cooling at 6 °C s−1, the γ → α transformation takes place after a stagnant stage; the carbon concentrations in both the α- and γ-phases increase and become non-uniform. When cooled below 450 °C, the γ-volume fraction is nearly unchanged. A small amount of carbon enriched martensite, transformed from the remaining γ-phase, exists in the room temperature microstructure. The simulated microstructures and carbon concentrations in martensite compare reasonably well with the experimental micrographs and atom-probe tomographic measurements. During tempering at 400 °C, martensite decomposes and the carbon concentration in the α-matrix increases. The simulation results are used to understand the mechanisms of yield strength variations after different heat treatments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)436-450
Number of pages15
JournalMetallurgical and Materials Transactions A: Physical Metallurgy and Materials Science
Volume50
Issue number1
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2019

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Steel
Tomography
heat treatment
Carbon
tomography
Heat treatment
steels
Atoms
microstructure
Microstructure
probes
carbon
atoms
martensite
Martensite
Experiments
austenite
Austenite
Volume fraction
Steel heat treatment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanics of Materials
  • Metals and Alloys

Cite this

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title = "Evolution of Microstructure and Carbon Distribution During Heat Treatments of a Dual-Phase Steel: Modeling and Atom-Probe Tomography Experiments",
abstract = "The temporal evolution of microstructures and carbon distributions in a Fe-0.323C-1.231Mn-0.849Si (mol pct) dual-phase steel during heat treatments are simulated using a two-dimensional cellular automaton model. The model involves austenite nucleation, phase transformations controlled by ferrite (α)/austenite (γ) interface mobility and the local carbon concentration, and long-range carbon diffusion. It is also coupled with a solute drag model to account for the effect of substitutional elements on the interface migration. The results show that after holding at 800 °C for 300 seconds the transformed γ-volume fraction is lower than the paraequilibrium prediction. During subsequent cooling at 6 °C s−1, the γ → α transformation takes place after a stagnant stage; the carbon concentrations in both the α- and γ-phases increase and become non-uniform. When cooled below 450 °C, the γ-volume fraction is nearly unchanged. A small amount of carbon enriched martensite, transformed from the remaining γ-phase, exists in the room temperature microstructure. The simulated microstructures and carbon concentrations in martensite compare reasonably well with the experimental micrographs and atom-probe tomographic measurements. During tempering at 400 °C, martensite decomposes and the carbon concentration in the α-matrix increases. The simulation results are used to understand the mechanisms of yield strength variations after different heat treatments.",
author = "Dong An and Baik, {Sung Il} and Shiyan Pan and Mingfang Zhu and Dieter Isheim and Krakauer, {Bruce W.} and Seidman, {David N}",
year = "2019",
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doi = "10.1007/s11661-018-4975-7",
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T1 - Evolution of Microstructure and Carbon Distribution During Heat Treatments of a Dual-Phase Steel

T2 - Modeling and Atom-Probe Tomography Experiments

AU - An, Dong

AU - Baik, Sung Il

AU - Pan, Shiyan

AU - Zhu, Mingfang

AU - Isheim, Dieter

AU - Krakauer, Bruce W.

AU - Seidman, David N

PY - 2019/1/1

Y1 - 2019/1/1

N2 - The temporal evolution of microstructures and carbon distributions in a Fe-0.323C-1.231Mn-0.849Si (mol pct) dual-phase steel during heat treatments are simulated using a two-dimensional cellular automaton model. The model involves austenite nucleation, phase transformations controlled by ferrite (α)/austenite (γ) interface mobility and the local carbon concentration, and long-range carbon diffusion. It is also coupled with a solute drag model to account for the effect of substitutional elements on the interface migration. The results show that after holding at 800 °C for 300 seconds the transformed γ-volume fraction is lower than the paraequilibrium prediction. During subsequent cooling at 6 °C s−1, the γ → α transformation takes place after a stagnant stage; the carbon concentrations in both the α- and γ-phases increase and become non-uniform. When cooled below 450 °C, the γ-volume fraction is nearly unchanged. A small amount of carbon enriched martensite, transformed from the remaining γ-phase, exists in the room temperature microstructure. The simulated microstructures and carbon concentrations in martensite compare reasonably well with the experimental micrographs and atom-probe tomographic measurements. During tempering at 400 °C, martensite decomposes and the carbon concentration in the α-matrix increases. The simulation results are used to understand the mechanisms of yield strength variations after different heat treatments.

AB - The temporal evolution of microstructures and carbon distributions in a Fe-0.323C-1.231Mn-0.849Si (mol pct) dual-phase steel during heat treatments are simulated using a two-dimensional cellular automaton model. The model involves austenite nucleation, phase transformations controlled by ferrite (α)/austenite (γ) interface mobility and the local carbon concentration, and long-range carbon diffusion. It is also coupled with a solute drag model to account for the effect of substitutional elements on the interface migration. The results show that after holding at 800 °C for 300 seconds the transformed γ-volume fraction is lower than the paraequilibrium prediction. During subsequent cooling at 6 °C s−1, the γ → α transformation takes place after a stagnant stage; the carbon concentrations in both the α- and γ-phases increase and become non-uniform. When cooled below 450 °C, the γ-volume fraction is nearly unchanged. A small amount of carbon enriched martensite, transformed from the remaining γ-phase, exists in the room temperature microstructure. The simulated microstructures and carbon concentrations in martensite compare reasonably well with the experimental micrographs and atom-probe tomographic measurements. During tempering at 400 °C, martensite decomposes and the carbon concentration in the α-matrix increases. The simulation results are used to understand the mechanisms of yield strength variations after different heat treatments.

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