Evolution of the Endoscope and Endoscopic Sinus Surgery

Rakesh K. Chandra*, David B. Conley, Robert C. Kern

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations


Advances in instrumentation are part of the natural evolution of any surgical discipline. During this process, there are certain key junctures where the state of the art in technology truly augments the surgeon's ability to manage higher levels of pathology. The present era of endoscopic sinus surgery has been hallmarked by extension of minimally invasive techniques to complex pathologies including advanced inflammatory disease, and pathology involving the orbit, skull base, and brain. Evolution of the armamentarium for endoscopic visualization has been a central feature in this. In this article, key historical elements are reviewed and the technical principles behind these important advances in endoscopic visualization are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)747-752
Number of pages6
JournalOtolaryngologic Clinics of North America
Issue number5
StatePublished - Oct 2009


  • Digital imaging
  • Endoscopic sinus surgery
  • Hopkins rod
  • Sino-nasal endoscopy
  • Video technology

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Otorhinolaryngology


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