Exaggerated glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

Susan Sam, Priyathama Vellanki, Sudha K. Yalamanchi, Richard N. Bergman, Andrea E Dunaif*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Context Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women. Study Subjects and Methods Ten obese women with PCOS and 9 control women of similar ethnicity, age and BMI underwent determination of CRR in response to hypoglycemia during 180-min 60 mU/m2/min insulin dose hypoglycemic clamp with isotopic assessment of endogenous glucose production (EGP). To assess CRR to hypoglycemia, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol levels were sampled at 15-min intervals throughout the clamp. Main Findings Incremental glucagon levels were ~ 3-fold higher during hypoglycemia (P = 0.03) in PCOS. Postabsorptive, steady-state and incremental GH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, FFA, glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ. At target glucose levels of ~ 52 mg/dL, insulin mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) was decreased by ~ 40% (P = 0.02) in PCOS, compared to control women, despite ~ 20% higher steady-state insulin levels (P = 0.03). Neither postabsorptive nor steady-state EGP differed. However, postabsorptive lactate levels were ~ 50% higher (P = 0.02). PCOS status (P = 0.04) and IMGD (P = 0.02) predicted the differential glucagon response to hypoglycemia in separate regression models, however, neither parameter remained an independent predictor in a combined model. Principal Conclusions Glucagon responses were increased in PCOS, whereas other CRR did not differ. Women with PCOS were insulin resistant under hypoglycemic conditions and higher postabsorptive lactate levels in PCOS were consistent with this finding. Insulin resistance may have contributed to exaggerated glucagon response to hypoglycemia in PCOS.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)125-131
Number of pages7
JournalMetabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Volume71
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 1 2017

Fingerprint

Polycystic Ovary Syndrome
Glucagon
Hypoglycemia
Pancreatic Polypeptide
Hormones
Insulin
Glucose
Hydroxybutyrates
Lactic Acid
Nonesterified Fatty Acids
Hypoglycemic Agents
Glycerol
Epinephrine
Growth Hormone
Hydrocortisone
Norepinephrine
Insulin Resistance
Estrogens
Phenotype

Keywords

  • Counter-regulatory hormones
  • Hypoglycemia
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
  • Endocrinology

Cite this

Sam, Susan ; Vellanki, Priyathama ; Yalamanchi, Sudha K. ; Bergman, Richard N. ; Dunaif, Andrea E. / Exaggerated glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental. 2017 ; Vol. 71. pp. 125-131.
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abstract = "Context Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women. Study Subjects and Methods Ten obese women with PCOS and 9 control women of similar ethnicity, age and BMI underwent determination of CRR in response to hypoglycemia during 180-min 60 mU/m2/min insulin dose hypoglycemic clamp with isotopic assessment of endogenous glucose production (EGP). To assess CRR to hypoglycemia, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol levels were sampled at 15-min intervals throughout the clamp. Main Findings Incremental glucagon levels were ~ 3-fold higher during hypoglycemia (P = 0.03) in PCOS. Postabsorptive, steady-state and incremental GH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, FFA, glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ. At target glucose levels of ~ 52 mg/dL, insulin mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) was decreased by ~ 40{\%} (P = 0.02) in PCOS, compared to control women, despite ~ 20{\%} higher steady-state insulin levels (P = 0.03). Neither postabsorptive nor steady-state EGP differed. However, postabsorptive lactate levels were ~ 50{\%} higher (P = 0.02). PCOS status (P = 0.04) and IMGD (P = 0.02) predicted the differential glucagon response to hypoglycemia in separate regression models, however, neither parameter remained an independent predictor in a combined model. Principal Conclusions Glucagon responses were increased in PCOS, whereas other CRR did not differ. Women with PCOS were insulin resistant under hypoglycemic conditions and higher postabsorptive lactate levels in PCOS were consistent with this finding. Insulin resistance may have contributed to exaggerated glucagon response to hypoglycemia in PCOS.",
keywords = "Counter-regulatory hormones, Hypoglycemia, Polycystic ovary syndrome",
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Exaggerated glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome. / Sam, Susan; Vellanki, Priyathama; Yalamanchi, Sudha K.; Bergman, Richard N.; Dunaif, Andrea E.

In: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental, Vol. 71, 01.06.2017, p. 125-131.

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

TY - JOUR

T1 - Exaggerated glucagon responses to hypoglycemia in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

AU - Sam, Susan

AU - Vellanki, Priyathama

AU - Yalamanchi, Sudha K.

AU - Bergman, Richard N.

AU - Dunaif, Andrea E

PY - 2017/6/1

Y1 - 2017/6/1

N2 - Context Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women. Study Subjects and Methods Ten obese women with PCOS and 9 control women of similar ethnicity, age and BMI underwent determination of CRR in response to hypoglycemia during 180-min 60 mU/m2/min insulin dose hypoglycemic clamp with isotopic assessment of endogenous glucose production (EGP). To assess CRR to hypoglycemia, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol levels were sampled at 15-min intervals throughout the clamp. Main Findings Incremental glucagon levels were ~ 3-fold higher during hypoglycemia (P = 0.03) in PCOS. Postabsorptive, steady-state and incremental GH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, FFA, glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ. At target glucose levels of ~ 52 mg/dL, insulin mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) was decreased by ~ 40% (P = 0.02) in PCOS, compared to control women, despite ~ 20% higher steady-state insulin levels (P = 0.03). Neither postabsorptive nor steady-state EGP differed. However, postabsorptive lactate levels were ~ 50% higher (P = 0.02). PCOS status (P = 0.04) and IMGD (P = 0.02) predicted the differential glucagon response to hypoglycemia in separate regression models, however, neither parameter remained an independent predictor in a combined model. Principal Conclusions Glucagon responses were increased in PCOS, whereas other CRR did not differ. Women with PCOS were insulin resistant under hypoglycemic conditions and higher postabsorptive lactate levels in PCOS were consistent with this finding. Insulin resistance may have contributed to exaggerated glucagon response to hypoglycemia in PCOS.

AB - Context Premenopausal women have blunted counter-regulatory hormone responses (CRR) to hypoglycemia compared to men. Postmenopausal women have CRR similar to men; the premenopausal pattern can be restored by estrogen. However, glucagon and pancreatic polypeptide (PP) responses remain lower in postmenopausal women than in men. Since hyperandrogenemia contributes to the metabolic phenotype of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), we hypothesize that CRR to hypoglycemia especially of glucagon and PP is exaggerated in premenopausal women with PCOS compared to premenopausal control women. Study Subjects and Methods Ten obese women with PCOS and 9 control women of similar ethnicity, age and BMI underwent determination of CRR in response to hypoglycemia during 180-min 60 mU/m2/min insulin dose hypoglycemic clamp with isotopic assessment of endogenous glucose production (EGP). To assess CRR to hypoglycemia, glucagon, cortisol, growth hormone (GH), epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, lactate, free fatty acid (FFA), β-hydroxybutyrate, and glycerol levels were sampled at 15-min intervals throughout the clamp. Main Findings Incremental glucagon levels were ~ 3-fold higher during hypoglycemia (P = 0.03) in PCOS. Postabsorptive, steady-state and incremental GH, cortisol, epinephrine, norepinephrine, PP, FFA, glycerol and β-hydroxybutyrate did not differ. At target glucose levels of ~ 52 mg/dL, insulin mediated glucose disposal (IMGD) was decreased by ~ 40% (P = 0.02) in PCOS, compared to control women, despite ~ 20% higher steady-state insulin levels (P = 0.03). Neither postabsorptive nor steady-state EGP differed. However, postabsorptive lactate levels were ~ 50% higher (P = 0.02). PCOS status (P = 0.04) and IMGD (P = 0.02) predicted the differential glucagon response to hypoglycemia in separate regression models, however, neither parameter remained an independent predictor in a combined model. Principal Conclusions Glucagon responses were increased in PCOS, whereas other CRR did not differ. Women with PCOS were insulin resistant under hypoglycemic conditions and higher postabsorptive lactate levels in PCOS were consistent with this finding. Insulin resistance may have contributed to exaggerated glucagon response to hypoglycemia in PCOS.

KW - Counter-regulatory hormones

KW - Hypoglycemia

KW - Polycystic ovary syndrome

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