Examination of the Factor Structure of the Adolescent Sleep–Wake Scale (ASWS)

Bonnie Essner*, Melanie Noel, Matthew Myrvik, Tonya Palermo

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

65 Scopus citations


This study examined the factor structure of the Adolescent Sleep–Wake Scale (ASWS) among 491 adolescents (12–18 years) with and without pediatric health conditions. Exploratory factor analyses were conducted using iterated principal axis factoring with varimax rotation. Highly cross-loading items were systematically removed and analyses were rerun until a clean solution was attained. The final solution explained 57.1% of the total model variance, including 10 items and three factors: Falling Asleep and Reinitiating Sleep-Revised, returning to Wakefulness-Revised, and Going to Bed-Revised. Internal consistency reliability scores were acceptable to good, with the exception of the Going to Bed-Revised subscale for the healthy sample. Adolescents with chronic pain reported significantly poorer overall sleep quality and more problems in falling asleep, reinitiating sleep, and returning to wakefulness as compared to healthy adolescents, providing preliminary evidence for construct validity of the new factors. The resulting ASWS version is a concise assessment tool with empirically derived, distinct behavioral sleep dimensions that can be used for clinical and research purposes.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)296-307
Number of pages12
JournalBehavioral sleep medicine
Issue number4
StatePublished - Jul 4 2015

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neuroscience (miscellaneous)
  • Psychology (miscellaneous)
  • Medicine (miscellaneous)


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